Recent Changes

Thursday, February 16

  1. 8:26 am
  2. page home edited ... Dialysis Filtration Membrane Permeability à Transport Across Membrane*Selectively or Differ…
    ...
    Dialysis
    Filtration
    Membrane Permeability à Transport Across Membrane*Selectively or Differentially permeable – some thing can cross, not others
    Passive Transport
    Simple Diffusion - water, oxygen and other molecules
    {c8x16types-transport.jpg}
    Scientists describe the movement of substances in passive systems as going "down a concentration gradient." This means that substances in passive systems
    move from areasa region of high concentration to areasa region of low concentration, down a concentration gradientFacilitation Transport (Diffusion) - diffusion that is assisted by proteins (channel or carrier proteins)
    Solution
    Solute Solvent
    Osmosis - diffusion
    until they reach equal proportions on both sides of water. Salt Sucks
    Osmosis affects
    the turgidity of cells, different solution can affect the cells internal water amounts
    Contractile Vacuoles are found in freshwater microorganisms - they pump out excess water
    Turgor pressure occurs in plants cells as their central vacuoles fill with water.
    membrane.
    Diffusion- Process by which substances scatter themselves evenly through an available space. This system does not require additional energy to establish this distribution of substances.
    Osmosis and Dialysis - diffusion occures across a selectively permeable membrane. It permits certain substancesbut not others across the permeable membrane. Osmosis is the diffusion of water but not solutes. Dialysis is diffusion of solutes (substance disolved into another substance).
    Filtration - The movement of water and solutes through a membrane as a result of a pushing force that is greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side. The force is call hydrostatic pressure, which is simply the force or weight of a fluid pushing against some surface. Ex. Blood pressure, blood pushes against vessel walls.
    Active transport is the uphill movement of a substance through a living cell membrane. Uphill means "up a concentration gradient." That is from a lower to a higher concentration. The energy required for this movement is obtained from ATP (adenosine triphophate).
    Active Transport - involves moving molecules "uphill" against the concentration gradient, which requires energy
    Endocytosis - taking substances into the cell (pinocytosis for water, phagocytosis for solids)
    Receptor‑mediated endocytosis, a form of pinocytosis, occurs when specific macromolecules bind to plasma membrane receptors.
    Exocytosis - pushing substances out of the cell, such as the removal of wasteSodium-Potassium Pump - pumps out 3 sodiums for ever 2 potassium's taken in against gradient
    Demo - Starch in the baggie, iodine in the beaker. What happens and why? Observation of elodea cells in salt water. What happens and why? Minilab.
    Scientists describe the movement of substances in passive systems as going "down a concentration gradient." This means that substances in passive systems move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until they reach equal proportions on both sides of the membrane.

    Ion pump
    An ion pump is protein complex in cell membrane.
    (view changes)
    8:25 am

Wednesday, February 15

  1. page home edited ... {spinal-meninges.jpg} Brittany: Peripheral Nervous System pg. 273 Peripheral Nervous Syste…
    ...
    {spinal-meninges.jpg}
    Brittany: Peripheral Nervous System pg. 273
    Peripheral Nervous System
    Cranial nerves
    Twelve pairs – attached to the undersurface of the brain
    Connect brain with the neck and structures in the thorax and abdomen
    {Cranial_nerves.jpg}
    Spinal Nerves
    Thirty-one pairs – contain dendrites of sensory neurons and axons of motor neurons
    Conduct impulses necessary for sensations and voluntary movements
    Skin surface area supplied by a single nerve is called a dermatome.
    {I10-13-spinal.jpg}
    Peripheral nerve disorders
    1. Neuritis – general term referring to nerve inflammation
    Sciatica in inflammation of the sciatic nerve that innervates the legs
    Neuralgia, or muscle pain, often accompanies neuritis
    2. Trigeminal neuralgia – recurring episodes of stabbing pain along one or more branches of the trigeminal (fifth cranial) nerve in the head
    3. Bell palsy – paralysis of facial features resulting from damage to the facial (seventh cranial) nerve
    4. Herpes zoster, or shingles
    Viral infection caused by chickenpox virus that has invaded the dorsal root ganglion ad remained dormant until stress or reduced immunity precipitate an episode of shingles
    Usually affects a single dermatome, producing characteristic painful plaques or vesicles.

    Autonomic Nervous System
    Functional anatomy:
    (view changes)
    11:52 am
  2. 11:49 am
  3. 11:46 am
  4. page home edited ... {bone_growth.jpg} brittany "differences between a man's and a woman's skeleton" …
    ...
    {bone_growth.jpg}
    brittany "differences between a man's and a woman's skeleton"
    Size – Male skeleton generally larger
    Shape of pelvis – male pelvis deep and narrow, female pelvis broad and shallow
    Size of pelvis inlet – female pelvic inlet generally wider, normally large enough for baby’s head to pass through it
    Pubic angle – angle between pubic bones of female generally wider
    A man’s skeleton and woman’s skeleton differ in several ways. The female pelvis is made so that the body of a baby can pass through it during birth. Although the individual male hipbones (coxal bones) are generally larger than the individual female hipbones, together the male hipbones for a narrower structure then do the female hipbones. A man’s pelvis is shaped something like a funnel, but a woman’s pelvis has a broader, shallower shape, more like a basin. (incidentally, the word pelvis means “basin.” ) Another difference is that the pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet are both normally much wider in the female then in the male. The pubic angle at the front of the female pelvis where the two bones join is usually wider then it is in the male.
    {male_and_female_pelvis.jpg}

    Aneesha "joints"
    Every bone in the body, except one, connects to at least one other bone. The exception is the hyoid bone which anchors the tongue. Joints hold our bones together securely and at the same time make it possible for movement to occure between the bones.
    (view changes)
    11:39 am
  5. page home edited ... Inflammatory Joint Diseases (Arthritis) Arthritis- General name for many different inflammato…
    ...
    Inflammatory Joint Diseases (Arthritis)
    Arthritis- General name for many different inflammatory joint diseases
    ...
    cartilage. Ulnar deviation isdeviationis a common
    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis- more sever than adult version. Destroys growth of cartilage and growth of bones stops.
    Gouty arthritis (Gout)- Metabolic condition characterized by an increase of uric acid and nitrogen waste in blood. Excess uric acid deposits as sodium urate crystals in joints.
    ...
    {spinal-meninges.jpg}
    Brittany: Peripheral Nervous System pg. 273
    Belinda: AutonomicAutonomic Nervous System Sections A, B, C pg. 273
    ----

    Functional anatomy:
    Autonomic nervous system: motor neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glandular epithelial tissue; regulates the body’s automatic, or involuntary functions {wyDiagramNervousSystem.jpg}
    Autonomic neurons: preganglionic autonomic neurons conduct from spinal cord or brainstem to an autonomic ganglion; postganglionic neurons conduct from autonomic ganglia to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glandular epithelial tissue {I10-13-nerves2.jpg}
    Autonomic or visceral effectors: tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses (that is, cardiac and smooth muscle and glandular epithelial tissue)
    {500166-fx3.jpg}
    Composed of two divisions:
    Sympathetic system
    Parasympathetic system
    Autonomic conductions paths:
    Consist of two-neuron relays (that is, preganglionic neurons from the central nervous system to autonomic glanglia, synapses, postganglionic neurons from ganglia to visceral effectors)
    In contrast, somatic motor neurons conduct all the way from the CNS to somatic effectors with no intervening synapses
    Sympathetic nervous system:
    Dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
    Axons leave the spinal cord in the anterior roots of spinal nerves, extend to sympathetic, or collateral, ganglia and synapse with several postganglionic neurons whose axons extend to spinal or autonomic nerves to terminate in visceral effectors
    A chain of sympathetic ganglia is in front of and at each side of the spinal column
    Functions of the sympathetic nervous system:
    Serves as the emergency or stress system, controlling visceral effectors during strenuous exercise and when strong emotions (anger, fear, hate, or anxiety) are elicited
    Group of changes induced by sympathetic control is called the fight-or-flight response
    {sympathetic_vs_parasympathetic.jpg}

    Parasympathetic Nevous System
    Structure:
    (view changes)
    11:29 am
  6. file 500166-fx3.jpg uploaded
    11:28 am
  7. 11:26 am

More